Did Thutmose III Really Lay Siege To Megiddo? Part Three A: Towards a New Geography



 Damien F. Mackey



Regarding the Chief of Qadesh, Dr. I. Velikovsky had written in Ages in Chaos, I (Sphere Books, 1973, p. 143):

 “Who the king of the city of Kadesh was is not even asked”.


So, who may he have been? I have previously (Part Two C) rejected Velikovsky’s identification of the Chief of Qadesh as king Rehoboam of Judah, son of Solomon.

Here I begin my search for a new site and identification for “Qadesh” and its ruler.


Foes of King Solomon


According to 1 Kings 11:14-40, Yahweh raised up against the once great King Solomon – now in his phase of apostasy – three significant adversaries. These, “Hadad the Edomite, from the royal line of Edom” (v. 14); “Rezon son of Eliada, who had fled from his master, Hadadezer king of Zobah” (v. 23); and “Jeroboam son of Nebat [who] rebelled against the king. He was one of Solomon’s officials, an Ephraimite from Zeredah, and his mother was a widow named Zeruah” (v. 26), have already figured in my revision of history, especially “Rezon [var. Rezin] son of Eliada”. See my:


Zimri Lim to be Re-Located to Era of King Solomon




I have no doubt that, from the many correspondences between the conventionally set C18th BC era of Zimri-Lim and the C10th BC era of King Solomon, these eras must be merged (a downward shift of 800 years to accompany the 500-year shift of New Kingdom Egypt). Zimri-Lim is Rezon; his father Iahdulim is Eliada; Shamsi-Adad I is Hadadezer; his father,

Ilu Kabkabu, or Uru Kabkabu, is Rekhob (Rukab = Rekhob) (2 Samuel 8:3). And I have further suggested that the master-king of the time, Iarim-lim, was the biblical king Hiram; and that the celebrated Hammurabi was king Solomon himself, his rule extending to Babylon. (We recall Goedicke’s reference to the “vast empire” of pharaoh Thutmose I). And, even if it turns out that Hammurabi was not actually Solomon himself, he was his exact contemporary. For more, see my:


King Hiram the Historical and Hiram Abiff the Hysterical




And, regarding the highly-talented Jeroboam, who was forced to flee to Egypt (I Kings 11:40): “Solomon tried to kill Jeroboam, but Jeroboam fled to Egypt, to Shishak the king, and stayed there until Solomon’s death”, it has recently occurred to me (but I would view this far more tentatively than in the case of the Zimri-Lim reconstruction) that he may have been pharaoh Thutmose III’s brilliant Vizier, Rekhmire. Jeroboam, according to the Septuagint (but not the Masoretic), had actually married an Egyptian princess, “Ano” (1 Kings 12:24):


And Jeroboam heard in Mizraim{gr.Egypt} that Solomon was dead; and he spoke in the ears of Shishak{gr.Susakim} king of Mizraim{gr.Egypt}, saying, Let me go, and I will depart into my land; and Shishak{gr.Susakim} said to him, Ask any request, and I will grant it thee. And Shishak{gr.Susakim} gave to Jeroboam Ano the eldest sister of Thekemina his wife, to be his wife: she was great among the daughters of the king, and she bore to Jeroboam Abia his son: and Jeroboam said to Shishak{gr.Susakim}, Let me indeed go, and I will depart.


Jeroboam’s refuge in Egypt, to escape king Solomon, may not appear to sit very well with my theory that Solomon was in fact the ubiquitous Senenmut of Hatshepsut’s reign:


Solomon and Sheba





The chronology of all this would have to be tested, of course.

Solomon, however, may have been content with the fact that his enemy, Jeroboam, was living in exile. He, like his father, David, did not necessarily kill even those bitter enemies who were close at hand. In 1 Kings 2:9 David specifically told Solomon to bring Shimei’s head down to the grave in blood, but Solomon would allow him to live another three years.

Anyway, getting back to the Egyptian wife of Jeroboam, we find Velikovsky claiming to have found historical evidence for her (Ages in Chaos, ch. iv: “Princess Ano”, pp. 180-181):


In the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York there is preserved a canopic jar bearing the name of Princess Ano [his ref. No. 10.130.1003]. The time when the jar originated has been established on stylistic grounds as that of Thutmose III. No other references to a princess of such name is found in any Egyptian source or document.


Of course this data suited perfectly Velikovsky’s revision, according to which Shishak (Susakim) was Thutmose III (p. 181):


The existence of a princess by the name of Ano in the days of Thutmose III lends credence to the information contained in the Septuagint and gives additional support to the identification of Shishak or Susakim of the Septuagint with the pharaoh we know by the name Thutmose III.


Only a few pages earlier (pp. 179-180), Velikovsky had provided further historical information, this time pertaining to Solomon’s third (apart from Rezon and Jeroboam) foe, “Hadad the Edomite”. He, like Jeroboam, had also fled to Egypt seeking asylum. But, in the case of Hadad, he was “still only a boy”, and his particular nemesis was David’s general, Joab. I have written about the latter in:


King David’s Crafty General Joab



Firstly, I give the scriptural account of the young Hadad’s flight to Egypt (I Kings 11:14-18):


Then the Lord raised up against Solomon an adversary, Hadad the Edomite, from the royal line of Edom. Earlier when David was fighting with Edom, Joab the commander of the army, who had gone up to bury the dead, had struck down all the men in Edom. Joab and all the Israelites stayed there for six months, until they had destroyed all the men in Edom. But Hadad, still only a boy, fled to Egypt with some Edomite officials who had served his father. They set out from Midian and went to Paran. Then taking people from Paran with them, they went to Egypt, to Pharaoh king of Egypt, who gave Hadad a house and land and provided him with food.


Hadad – again like Jeroboam – proved to be a big hit with the pharaoh – whom Velikovsky identified in this case with Ahmose. Whilst I find that choice helpful from the point of view of my own revision, the chronology of it will, once again, need to be scrutinised. Confident as ever, Velikovsky would go on to suggest historical identifications for both the Egyptian wife (“Tahpenes”), and the son, of Hadad (“Genubath”), as referred to in this next text (vv. 19-22):


Pharaoh was so pleased with Hadad that he gave him a sister of his own wife, Queen Tahpenes, in marriage. The sister of Tahpenes bore him a son named Genubath, whom Tahpenes brought up in the royal palace. There Genubath lived with Pharaoh’s own children.

While he was in Egypt, Hadad heard that David rested with his ancestors and that Joab the commander of the army was also dead. Then Hadad said to Pharaoh, “Let me go, that I may return to my own country.”

“What have you lacked here that you want to go back to your own country?” Pharaoh asked.

“Nothing,” Hadad replied, “but do let me go!”


Velikovsky, in Ages in Chaos (ch. ii), concluded this about “The Queen Tahpenes” (p. 99):


This was in the days of David. The pharaoh must have been Ahmose.1 [1. Hadad left Egypt after the death of David (I Kings 11:21). Ahmose reigned more than twenty years, according to Manetho twenty-five years]. Among his queens must have been one by the name of Tahpenes. We open the register of the Egyptian queens to see whether Pharaoh Ahmose had a queen by this name. Her name is actually preserved and is read Tanethap, Tenthape, or, possibly, Tahpenes.2 [2. Gauthier: ‘Le Livre des rois d’Egypte’, (Cairo, 1902), II, 187, note 3. But see Stricker, Acta Orientalia, XV (1937), 11-12].


As for “Genubath”, the son of Hadad, Velikovsky had rather strikingly identified his name amongst those giving tribute to Thutmose III, very soon after the latter’s First Campaign. Velikovsky wrote about it (in ch. iv) in “Genubath, King of Edom” (pp. 179-180):


Hadad had returned to Edom in the days of Solomon, after the death of Joab [I Kings 11:21-22]. Since then about forty years had elapsed. Genubath, his son, was now the vassal king of Edom …. Tribute from this land, too, must have been sent to the Egyptian crown; there was no need to send an expedition to subdue Edom. When Thutmose III returned from one of his inspection visits to Palestine he found in Egypt tribute brought by couriers from the land, “Genubatye”, which did not have to be conquered by an expeditionary force.


When his majesty arrived in Egypt the messengers of the Genubatye came bearing their tribute.3 [3. Breasted: Records, Vol. II, Sec. 474].


It consisted of myrrh, “negroes for attendants”, bulls, calves, besides vessels laden with ivory, ebony, and skins of panther.

Who were the people of Genubatye? Hardly a guess has been made with regard to this peculiar name. The people of Genubatye were the people of Genubath, their king, contemporary of Rehoboam.


Velikovsky had, in the course of his historical revision – and despite his obvious mistakes – managed to come up with many such brilliant and helpful identifications as this one pertaining to Genubath – an identification obviously impossible in the conventional system, with Egypt’s 18th dynasty and the biblical Genubath separated in time by some 500 years.


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